Current status of knowledge regarding accumulation and toxicity of gadolinium-based contrast agents in the brain

By Dr J Ramalho, Miguel Ramalho, Richard C. Semelka, Mauricio Castillo

Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been in use for almost 30 years and their safety profiles are excellent with in a low incidence of
adverse events. The most recognized gadolinium-related toxicity is nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, which in practice has virtually disappeared since
2009, thanks to the introduction of a simple renal function screen.